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Citations: Key Words and Definitions

Information and resources for creating citations

Key Words and Definitions

Keywords and Definitions

Citations and the many differences between the large variety of citation styles can be CONFUSING! Use this list to help you navigate new styles or to refresh your memory. Don't hesitate to reach out for help clarifying any definitions or citation style requirements.

Annotated Bibliography - A list of all citations consulted to complete a paper or report and the summaries/evaluations of each of these resources. The summary/evaluation of each citation is known as the annotation. The annotation serves as a brief evaluation of the citation's importance and relevance to the research at hand. 

APA - APA stands for American Psychological Association. APA is an editorial style with a particular set of rules aimed at creating a consistent guideline to follow when paper writing. APA style is commonly used when citing papers written about topics within the social sciences. Social science examples include: anthropology, political science, psychology, economics etc. 

Bibliography - Found at the end of a Chicago Style research paper or report, a Bibliography is a list of all citations consulted to complete the paper or report. Bibliographies are organized alphabetically by author's last name. For instance, if you read and gathered ideas from a specific article but did not quote the article anywhere in your report, the article' citation goes in the Bibliography. A bibliography is different than a Works Cited page (see below). 

Chicago Manual of Style - Also known as Chicago Style. This is an editorial style with a particular set of rules aimed at creating a consistent guideline to follow when paper writing. Chicago Style is commonly used when citing papers written about history topics. Chicago Style can also be used with other humanities courses. 

Citation - Key information compiled together in a concise manner about a particular resource. Citations vary by resource type (book, journal article, podcast, etc.) and citation style (APA, MLA, etc.). Citations serve to give credit to resources used and to pinpoint the location of a resource within academia. Citations typically include the author, title, place of publication, publisher, and publication year. 

Citation Style - A specific and formatted method for citing references according to pre-determined guidelines. These guidelines are created by professional organizations, hence the citation style's name such as APA, which stands for teh American Psychological Association. Citation style guides can be found online (see our Citation Styles page for recommended resources).

Endnote - The Oxford English Dictionary defines an endnote as, "...any of a number of explanatory notes or references placed at the end of a book, article, etc." Not all citation styles require footnotes. This includes explanatory, bibliographic references placed at the end of a document. Endnotes are not to be confused with footnotes which appear at the bottom of each page of your text. Not to be confused with the citation management tool, EndNote.

EndNote - EndNote is a web-based citation tool that gathers, organizes, and stores your research and can generate citations. Check out our EndNote Guide for more information and tutorials. 

Footnote - The Oxford English Dictionary defines a footnote as, "...a note or comment inserted at the foot of the text." Not all citation styles require footnotes. Footnotes appear at the bottom of each page of your text and are full of bibliographic information about that reference. Footnotes are not to be confused with endnotes, which appear only at the very end of your entire paper or report. 

In-Text Citation - Typically occurs at the end of a sentence within your document and includes brief bibliographic information about the reference. The purpose of an in-text citation is to lead your reader to the reference's full bibliographic information in the Works Cited or References section of you paper. Also known as a parenthetical reference in MLA style and a Note Reference Number in Chicago Style.

MendeleyMendeley is a web-based citation tool that gathers, organizes, and stores your research and can generate citations. Check out our Mendeley Guide for more information and tutorials. 

MLA - MLA stands for Modern Language Association. MLA is an editorial style with a particular set of rules aimed at creating a consistent guideline to follow when paper writing. MLA style is commonly used when citing papers written about topics within the humanities and liberal arts. Humanities and liberal arts examples include: literature, philosophy, religion etc. 

Parenthetical Reference - In MLA style, a parenthetical reference typically occurs at the end of a sentence within your document and includes brief bibliographic information about the reference. The purpose of an in-text citation is to lead your reader to the reference's full bibliographic information in the Works Cited or References section of you paper. Known as a Note Reference Number in Chicago Style.

Plagiarism - The Oxford English Dictionary defines plagiarism as, "...the action or practice of taking someone else's work, idea, etc., and passing it off as one's own; literary theft." Citations help prevent plagiarism by acknowledging the source of knowledge and research used in your own work.

Reference List - Found at the end of a research paper or report adhering to APA style, a Reference List page is a list of all citations actually cited in that piece of work. Reference Lists are organized alphabetically by author's last name. A Reference List page is not to be confused with a Bibliography as they are not the same. The term Reference List is generally used within APA style papers, Bibliography is used to designate Chicago Style papers, and the term Works Cited is used within MLA style papers. 

Turabian Style - The Turabian Style is based off of the Chicago Manual of Style. Turabian is an editorial style with a particular set of rules aimed at creating a consistent guideline to follow when paper writing. Turabian Style is used when writing papers about social sciences and natural sciences.

Works Cited - Found at the end of a research paper or report adhering to MLA style, a Works Cited page is a list of all citations actually cited in that piece of work. Works Cited pages are organized alphabetically by author's last name. A Works Cited page is not to be confused with a Bibliography as they are not the same. The term Works Cited is generally used within MLA style papers and the term References is used within APA style papers. 

Works Consulted - Also found at the end of a research paper, the works consulted list contains all resources used to research and write your paper. This includes works not actually cited in your paper. If the resource was used to prepare your paper, include the resource in citation format in the Works Consulted page. 

Zotero - Zotero is a web-based citation tool that gathers, organizes, and stores your research and can generate citations. Check out our Zotero Guide for more information and tutorials.